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Resources for PhD students in the joint program in Urban Systems: Writing Dissertation

Resources on Academic Integrity (NJIT)

Resources on Copyright, Fair Use, and Permissions


General Citation Rules and Citing Images

Check what is the preferred citation style for the paper (MLA, Chicago, etc.).

See Purdue Online Writing Lab's great resource on general guidelines and how to cite different kinds of works.

Citing Images: When you document images you need to create captions and bibliographic citations. When an image appears in the text you should write a descriptive caption indicating the source of the image. Then you create a more detailed entry in your bibliography. The most important thing is to be consistent in formatting the text.

For citing images of works in visual arts you need to include basic information:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Date
  • Location/Repository
  • Material/medium
  • Dimensions (if applicable)

For example: Braque, Georges. Houses at l"Estaque. 1908. Oil on canvas, 730 x 595 mm. Kunstmuseum, Berne.

To see more examples of image citation, consult the library tutorial How to Cite Images.

Also consult the NJIT Research Guide Understanding Citations.

Online Resources for Citation Management

You can export citations directly from most databases, including Oxford Art Online, JSTOR, Art Full Text, and Avery Index. For more information, consult the Research Guide on using databases.

Bibliographic management software enables you to organize references and bibliographies. You can use Microsoft Word or special tools for citation management that will do formatting for you. An overview of citation software can be also found on the MIT website.

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