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Understanding Citations: Citing Patents & Standards

This guide was designed to help you read citations and understand different formats as well as create citations for your own research.

Citing Patents

Include the inventor(s) and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved. 

Example:

Borwin, G. F. (1998). U.S. Patent No. 178,323. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 

NOTE: Even if you retrieved the patent from Google Patents, the US Patent and Trademark Office is still the "official source" of the patent information.

Citing Standards from Professional Organizations

Whether you are citing a standard from IEEE, ANSI, ASME, ASTM or another organization, the same rules apply:

Basic Format:

Base Designation / Edition -Version / Title / Publisher/ Publisher City / Publisher State, Province / Publication Year/ DOI / Publisher Website

Examples:

Referencing Standards with Year of Approval:

ASTM Standard C33, 2003, "Specification for Concrete Aggregates," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003, DOI: 10.1520/C0033-03,www.astm.org.

Referencing Standards (multiple revisions in same year):

ASTM Standard C33, 2003a, "Specification for Concrete Aggregates," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003, DOI: 10.1520/C0033-03A,www.astm.org.

Referencing Standards (reapproved):

ASTM Standard C33, 2003 (2006), "Specification for Concrete Aggregates," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006, DOI: 10.1520/C0033-03R06,www.astm.org.

Referencing Standards (editorial change):

ASTM Standard C33, 2003e1, "Specification for Concrete Aggregates," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003, DOI: 10.1520/C0033-03E01, www.astm.org.

Retrieved from: http://www.astm.org/Msgs/citing.htm

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