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Film and Architecture: Citing Films

Bibliography / Reference List

Citing films tends to be more complex than books or articles. Check with your instructor regarding preferred citation format. *Adapted from OWL (Purdue University Online Writing Lab).


List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director's name.

Metropolis. Directed by Fritz Lang, performances by Brigitte Helm, Alfred Abel. UFA, 1927


Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Deeley, M. (Producer), & Scott, R. (Director). (1982). Blade Runner [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.


Lastname, Firstname. Title of work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

Footnote: The Purple Rose of Cairo, directed by Woody Allen. Production design by Stuart Wurtzel. Performances by Mia Farrow, Jeff Daniels, Dianne Wiest (Orion Pictures, 1985).

Bibliography: The Purple Rose of Cairo. Directed by Woody Allen. Production design by Stuart Wurtzel. Performances by Mia Farrow, Jeff Daniels, Dianne Wiest. Orion Pictures, 1985.

* see Chicago Manual of Style "Audiovisual Materials 17.265-17.273" for more recommendations based on format. We have this book in our reference section: Arch Ref Z253.U69 2003


In-text Citations


(Lang, Metropolis)


(Scott, 1982)


*Uses footnotes

Film or Production Stills

There are a few different ways to cite film or production stills that appear in your paper or presentation. Stay consistent, highlight the most important aspects of what the still demonstrates, and credit where the still came from if possible. (See linked examples of how these stills and their citations appear in journal articles).

Sample Film and Production Still Citations:

It Should Happen to You, 1953, Film still. Art director, John Meehan; director, George Cukor. MOMA

Skyscraper, 1965

Production still from Metro-Goldwyn Mayer’s Susan Lenox: Her Fall and Rise (1931). Credit: Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, Margaret Herrick Library, Roddy McDowall Photograph Archive.

The Last Emperor, Bernardo Bertolucci, 1987. Puyi is received by his subjects outside the Hall of Supreme Harmony.

New Jersey Institute of Technology
University Heights, Newark, New Jersey 07102-1982
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