For population data from the U.S. Census 2010 (as well 2000), start with American FactFinder. There is also a link to the American Community Survey
Other related tables from the U.S. Census Bureau include:
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics periodically conducts the Consumer Expenditure Survey which provides information on consumers and their expenditures, as well as the American Time Use Survey. As a result of the Occupational Employment Survey, the BLS publishes the Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. Other data sets are available from the Occupational Employment Statistics Home Page.
The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Estimates obtained from the CPS include employment, unemployment, earnings, hours of work, and other indicators."
The U.S. Census Bureau conducts several other periodic surveys, including the following:
The Local Area Personal Income tables, derived from the U.S Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Accounts Data, provides over thirty years of historical information. Particularly useful are estimates of per capita personal income by county.
Some historical employment data is available from the HUD-sponsored State of the Cities Data Systems, along with demographic profiles for cities. Detailed Occupation Statistics based on the 2000 Census are also available from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The Administration on Aging has a growing collection of Data and Statistics with links to other government agencies and research centers.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has created the Census 2000 Special EEO File with tables for race and ethnic distributions for states, metropolitan areas, counties, and selected places in the United States. More recent EEO Tabulation 2006-2010 are also available.
The U.S. Census Bureau has also generated graphical representations of data e.g. Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity, which shows total population and population percentage change since 1990.
Current socioeconomic statistics on various groups are covered by the U.S. Census Bureau:
International Trade Administration Import, Export Statistics, Trade Data and Analysis.
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