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History of Architecture: Citing Images in Architecture, Art & Design

This guide has been designed to help students in the School of Art and Design with the study of the History of Architecture

General Rules

Read general information about intellectual property i the Research guide "Intellectual Property at the Digital Age". Citing images of works in architecture, arts and design can be challenging. Ask your professor what is the style appropriate for the course. When you document images you need to create captions and bibliographic citations. When image appears in the text you should write a descriptive caption indicating the source of the image. Then you create a more detailed entry in your bibliography. Read Library tutorial How to Create Bibliographies to learn more on various styles and on how to cite different sources.  The most important is to be consistent in formatiing the text.

For citing images of works in visual arts you need to include basic information:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Date
  • Location/Repository
  • Material/medium
  • Dimensions (if applicable)

For example: Braque, Georges Houses at l"Estaque. 1908. Oil on canvas, 730x595mm. Kunstmuseum, Berne.

    To see more examples consult tutorial How to Cite Images on the library website

    If Image is Found in a Database

    Cite the relevant publication information as you would do for print one followed by name of the database or subscription collection. End the citation with the medium of publication - Web, and the date of access. For articles that appear in an online-only format or in databases that do not provide a page number, use the abbreviation n.pag. for no pagination. If no publisher is listed, use N.P. If work has an alternative name you might want to provide both.

    For example:Wright, Frank Lloyd. Elevation and Plan of the Fallingwater (Kaufmann House). 1936-38. Architecture Image Database, Littman Library, NJIT. AM-722. Web. 16 June 2009.

    If image is Found in a Print Article

    In addition to information on work of art/architecture include name of article's author, title of the article and periodical title. Follow with the publisher information, date/issue, page and figure number.

    For example: Borallo, Anna Living Room in Paul Grey's Apaertment in New York. Photograph by Nathan Kirkman. Skolnik, Lisa "High resolution". Metropolitan Home 1.5 (2009):117. Print.

    If Image is Found on the Web

    Include the artist's name, the year the work was created, and the institution (e.g. gallery or museum) that houses it ( if applicable), followed by the city where it is located.

    Include the complete information for the site where you found the image, including the date of access.

    For example: Rembrandt, Harmens van Rijn. The Return of the Prodigal Son. c.1665. Oil on canvas. 264x60cm. The State Hermitage Museum, St.Petersburg. The State Hermitage Museum. Web. 17 June 2009.<>

    If image is Found in a Book

    You need to include name of an artist/architect/designer, a work title, date it was created, repository/location (if applicable), and also the bibliographic information for the source in which this image appears (name of book's author, book title, publisher information, date, page and figure or plate number of the reproduction).

    For example: Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV.1800. Museum del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. Richard G.Tansey and Fred S.Kleiner. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 2003:939. Print.

    Subject Guide

    Citing Maps & Photographs of a Building

    Cite a map as you would an anonymous book or pamphlet. Include the appropriate designator after the title.

    For example: Newark. Part of Ward 6. Map. Robinson, Elisha Robinson's Atlas of the City of Newark, New Jersey in Three Volumes. Newark, Elisha Robinson, 1926:4.

    While citing photograph you should acknowledge a photographer (if known). For example, Photograph by John Smith or Photograph courtesy of the Museum of Modern Art.

    Architectural drawings and models are subject to copyright.

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