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Using Images, Citing, and Plagiarism: Chicago Style

This guide offers general information on using and citing information responsibly and ethically specific to art and design disciplines

Overview of Chicago Citation Styles

Below is an overview of two systems of citing according to the Chicago Manual of Style: Author-Date and Notes. Selecting which is most appropriate usually depends on your discipline. However, check with your instructor for further guidance and remember to stay consistent when picking a style. Certain publications also provide style guidance and detailed preferences for formatting citations. For example see The Journal of the Society of Architectural HistoriansGuidelines for Authors Submitting to JSAH and JSAH Online.

For more examples of Author-Date and Notes and Bibliography see: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide - Chicago Manual of Style Online.

Author-Date Style

Chicago Author-Date is comprised of two citation elements: In-Text citations and a Reference List / Works Cited.  This style is used by researchers in science and social science disciplines.  

The Basics: Below are some common citation scenarios.  The Chicago Manual of Style provides detailed guidance on different types of sources and their appropriate citation formats.  See The Chicago Manual of Style.

The In-Text Citations consist of 1. The Author(s) and 2. The Date

For one author: (Gropius 2017)

Two or three authors: (Gropius, Moholy-Nagy, and Breuer 2017)

Four or more: (Gropius et al. 2017)

For authors with the same last name, include first initial: (J. Albers 2017) (A. Albers 2017)

Multiple works from the same year: (Gropius 2017a) (Gropius 2017b)

Reference List / Works Cited:

Books:

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.

Books with an Editor:

Author Last Name, First Name, ed. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.

Chapter/Essay in a Book/Anthology:

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Chapter/Essay Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Pages of Chapter/Essay. Place: Publisher.

Articles:

Author Last Name, First Name. Year "Article Title." Journal Title Volume (Issue): Page Range of Article. doi: Digital Object Identifier.

Images (online and in print):

Images are not usually included in a reference list.  If including the image in your text caption it with the artist, year the work was created, title of the work, and where it is held/located.

Webpage:

Author Last Name, First Name. Last Modified/Accessed Year. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Month Day. URL.

*If there is no author, start with the page title.

Archival Materials:

Collection Name. Repository Name. Place.

Notes and Bibliography Style

Chicago Notes is comprised of two citation elements: Notes and a Bibliography. This style is typically used by researchers in arts, humanities, and history disciplines.  

The Basics: Below are some common citation scenarios. The Chicago Manual of Style provides detailed guidance on different types of sources and their appropriate citation formats. See The Chicago Manual of Style.

Books:

Notes: Author First Name Last Name, Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), page(s) cited.

Bibliography: Author Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

*With multiple authors or editors, list in the order as they appear on the title page.

Book with an Editor:

Notes: Editor First Name Last Name, ed., Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), page(s) cited.

Bibliography: Editor Last Name, First Name, ed. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Chapter/Essay in a Book/Anthology:

Notes: Author First Name Last Name, "Chapter/Essay Title," in Book Title, ed. Editor First Name Last Name (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

Bibliography: Author Last Name, First Name. "Chapter/Essay Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages of Chapter/Essay. Place: Publisher, Year.

Articles:

Notes: Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Cited Page(s), doi: Digital Object Identifier.

Bibliography: Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Page Range of Article. doi: Digital Object Identifier.

Images (online):

Notes: Artist/Photographer First Name Last Name. Title of the Work, Year Created, Medium, Size, Institution Where Original Held, accessed Date Accessed, URL.

*If the image is from a book or article, add the book/article citation in place of Date Accessed and URL.

Bibliography: (not usually cited in a bibliography)

Webpage:

Notes: Author First Name Last Name, "Page Title," Website Title, last modified Date, URL.

Bibliography (if needed, see: 14.245 in Chicago Manual, 16th edition): Author Last Name, First Name. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Date. URL.

*If there is no author, start with the page title. 

Archival Materials:

Notes: Item, Date, Collection Name, Repository Name, Place

Bibliography: Collection Name. Repository Name. Place.

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